Vitiligo is also known as 'Leucoderma' in India, it is considered as a social stigma. Vitiligo is appearance of single or multiple depigmented patches on any part of the body. These patches gradually increase in size & cause lot of psychological stress in the patient. It is an auto-immune condition and may have a genetic predisposition.
The cause is typically unknown. It is believed to be due to genetic susceptibility that is triggered by an environmental factor such that an autoimmune disease occurs. This results in the destruction of skin pigment cells. Risk factors include a family history of the condition or other autoimmune diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, alopecia areata, and pernicious anemia. It is not contagious.
Vitiligo is classified into two main types: segmental and non-segmental. Most cases are non-segmental, meaning they affect both sides; and these cases typically get worse with time. About 10% of cases are segmental, meaning they mostly involve one side of the body and these cases do not typically worsen with time. Diagnosis can be confirmed by tissue biopsy.